PFM Test Pattern

Test pattern for Piezoresponce Force Microscopy

The test pattern for Piezoresponse Force Microscopy (PFM) is intended for setting of PFM mode, optimization of the modulation voltage parameters (frequency, phase, amplitude), and test measurements in PFM mode.

Lithium niobate (LiNbO3) single-crystalline 500 µm thick plate with roughness less than 10 nm cut normal to the polar axis. A regular domain structure with period D was created in the sample. The spontaneous polarization has the opposite direction in the neighboring domains. The polarization direction determines the sign of piezoelectric coefficient. Analysis of the local piezoelectric response during application of the modulation voltage allows to reveal the domain pattern.


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2 in stock

Order Code PFM03
Price $403.00


Sample Size 5 x 5 mm
Sample Thickness (h) 500 µm
Period (D) 7 µm
Dash Length (L) 100 µm
Fixed on a metal substrate by conductive epoxy


Phase of piezoresponse signal

Quick Start Guide

The sample is fixed on the SPM holder and its bottom electrode is grounded. The measurements are held in contact mode. AC voltage with a frequency fmod is applied to the SPM tip. The sample surface oscillates with the same frequency. This response is analyzed using the lock-in amplifier. The domain walls contrast can be obtained in the amplitude of the piezoresponse signal, and domain contrast – in the phase of the signal.